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Signs of Deficiency include:

Allergies and Chemical Sensitivities

In the book Encyclopaedia of Natural Medicine , the authors note that food allergies are usually associated with low hydrochloric acid levels and poor digestion. The authors' rationale for this is that low stomach acid leaves food undigested and fermenting in the intestinal tract. This fermentation causes gas, bloating and stomach upset, the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Undigested and fermented food causes the body to raise histamine levels, which produce allergic reactions. This is why people take antihistamines for allergies, to lower histamine levels. Interestingly, Mg is needed to reduce histamine levels.
Low stomach acid levels reduce levels of beneficial intestinal bacteria which is needed for absorption of magnesium.

When lab rats are deprived of magnesium, a wide variety of studies have noted that they develop allergy like symptoms. Their ears turn red and they develop skin problems. Rats with magnesium deficiencies have increases in histamine levels. They also have raised levels of white blood cell counts. Mg deficiency has been implicated in allergies and allergic skin reaction in many studies on humans, too.

Variations of allergies, skin allergies, and raised white blood cells have all been noted as features of many chronic disorders.
People with chemical sensitivities also commonly have other conditions linked to Mg deficits such as allergies, fibromyalgia, mitral valve prolapsed and anxiety disorders. They also tend to have temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJ), which has been linked to abnormalities of hyaluronic acid. Perhaps not coincidentally, hyaluronic acid is dependent upon magnesium for its synthesis.
Asthma is has been linked to Mg deficiencies in a wide variety of studies. Asthma and allergies not only frequently occur together, but they frequently occur together along with gastrointestinal upset in many chronic disorders including Mitral Valve Prolapse syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Gastrointestinal upset is often a sign of malabsorption problems, which can be a cause of nutritional deficiencies.

Anxiety and Psychiatric Disorders
Magnesium (Mg) deficiency causes increased levels of adrenaline, which can lead to a feeling of anxiety. Rats that become magnesium deficient have an increased level of urinary catecholamine excretion (a by-product of adrenaline). People who have Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) have also been found to have an increased state of anxiety and have an increased level of urinary catecholamine excretion, the exact same condition found in rats who are Mg deficient.It is not surprising then, to find that people with MVP are usually low in magnesium, and that magnesium supplementation alleviates the symptoms of MVP and reduces the level of urinary catecholamine excretion, i.e. it also reduces the anxiety symptoms.
Researcherís in Spain found a correlation between anxiety disorders and hyper mobility. In fact, they found that patients with anxiety disorder were over 16 times more likely than control subjects to have joint laxity. If you put the study results together, then thereís a link between anxiety and hyper mobility, a link between anxiety and MVP, and a link between MVP and hyper mobility.
These studies tell us that anxiety disorders occur in many people who simply have MVP and/or joint hyper mobility, meaning anxiety disorders are not specific to EDS or any particular connective tissue disorder. Marfans also have MVP and joint hyper mobility which would lead one to conjecture that they, too, have anxiety related disorders. As it turns out, a connection between Marfans and anxiety related disorders has been noted.

A study in Bulgaria also found magnesium abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia and depression. The authors thought the schizophrenia and depression caused the magnesium deficiencies, but I disagree that that was necessarily the case. When you look at this study within the context of all the other studies mentioned in this section, it is more likely that the magnesium abnormalities caused the mental illness. (There are quite a few studies on magnesium and mental illness on Medline. I just included a few to highlight my points.)

In a study from England, there was a strong association for more disturbed and excitable patients to have abnormal (either high or low) magnesium levels. The authors thought that the patients who seemed most disturbed may have some abnormality of magnesium metabolism.

Aorta Strength
In an experiment on lab rats, the animals had their thoracic aortas injured with balloons. They were then fed diets with low, normal or high magnesium concentrations. The rat aortas with the high magnesium diets healed better than the normal and low Mg diets.

Magnesium sulphate is used as a treatment for asthma.
Mg is known to be important for proper lung functioning.
Mg is being increasingly looked at as a treatment for asthma.
A study from Brown University showed remarkable improvement in children with asthma, who was treated with intravenous magnesium.Low polymorph nuclear magnesium content has been observed in patients with bronchial asthma. The study authors believe that polymorph nuclear magnesium content may have an important role in causing asthma.

A study reported on in the Lancet, notes that people who have diets lower in Mg have more asthmatic symptoms. People with diets higher in magnesium have less asthmatic symptoms.

Mg prevents pre-asthmatic lung changes in animal studies.Asthma is a common finding in connective tissue disorders, as are keratoconus, MVP, rachitic skeletal defects and many other conditions associated with magnesium deficiency. Asthma occurs frequently along with allergies, seizures and many other disorders that can all be linked to a Mg deficiency.
Multivitamin tablets and pills often do not contain magnesium because it is a bulky mineral that makes the pill or tablets very large, so manufacturers often just leave it out! Yet multivitamin they contain many Mg antagonists, i.e. vitamins and minerals that lower magnesium levels in your body. Perhaps this is why recent studies show that multivitamins usage is associated with asthma and allergies.

Attention Deficit Disorder
A medication containing magnesium has been used successfully to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
In a study from Poland, children with ADHD were been found to more deficient than controls in a selected number of bio elements. Magnesium deficiencies were the most pronounced difference. Magnesium supplementation in the ADHD children decreased their hyperactivity.

In a study from Germany , boys with reactive behaviour problems were treated with a medication containing magnesium with positive results.

In a study on guinea pigs, a group of the animals that had Mg deficiencies induced showed changes in their brain waves.
In a study from England, there was a strong association for more disturbed and excitable patients to have abnormal (either high or low) Mg levels. The authors thought that the patients who seemed most disturbed may have some abnormality of Mg metabolism.
Calcification of Soft Tissue Including Heart Valves.

Magnesium is a known treatment for a variety of types of calcification of soft tissues.
Mg levels have been found to be greatly reduced in calcified mitral valves.
In a study of rats, Mg deficiency has been shown to cause aortic calcification.
Vitamin K deficiency has also been linked to calcification of soft tissues.

A 2005 landmark study by researchers from the Harvard School of Public found an inverse association between type 2 diabetes and magnesium intake. The major recommendation from this study was for people to consume more magnesium rich foods.

Patents with fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome are often found to be low in Mg. Supplementation with malic acid and magnesium is a common treatment for fibromyalgia.
Seventy-five percent of the people with fibromyalgia have MVP. MVP is thought to occur in about 10% of the population in general, so this statistically is quite significant. MVP is another disorder also closely linked to Mg deficiency.
Hyper mobility is also closely linked to fibromyalgia. Hyper mobility is a feature of rickets which has links to Mg deficiencies.
Women with fibromyalgia have been found to have abnormal serum levels of hyaluronic acid. The authors of this study suggested serum hyaluronic levels may be used to diagnose fibromyalgia. But are elevated serum hyaluronic acid levels an indicator of fibromyalgia, or are they yet another symptom of an Mg deficiency?
Interestingly, people with Down syndrome have elevated serum hyaluronic acid levels, too. What are some common links between Down syndrome and fibromyalgia? Both groups have MVP and hyper mobility at rates much higher rates than controls, and Down syndrome patients have been found to be low in magnesium, among other trace elements.
Fibromyalgia, hyper mobility and MVP are closely linked to each other, all may be linked to magnesium deficiency and all are features of many chronic disorders, and virtually all hereditary connective tissue disorders, especially Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. All three conditions are also features of Down syndrome, which has many overlaps with connective tissue disorders. All of these individual features and syndromes are linked to hyaluronic acid abnormalities, and hyaluronic acid is dependent upon Mg for its synthesis.
Magnesium deficiency, and perhaps other elements that affect hyaluronic acid levels, are a common thread to connective tissue disorders and disorders with overlapping features like Down syndrome. If these disorders all had an underlying biochemical deficiency such a magnesium deficit, then all of these interesting associations between MVP, fibromyalgia, hyaluronic acid, magnesium, Down syndrome and connective tissue disorders would have perfectly logical explanations.

Hearing Loss
Mg supplementation has been found to prevent noise induced hearing loss in humans.
Guinea pigs fed magnesium rich diets suffered less hearing loss than controls when exposed to loud noises. Similar results held true for studies on rats fed Mg rich diets.
Rats fed Mg reduced diets suffered hearing losses, and these losses were corrected by adding magnesium back into the diet.
Mg deficiency may responsible for irreversible inner ear damage.
Hearing loss is a symptom of osteogenesis imperfecta, Ehlers-Danlos and Down syndromes - all disorders with many other symptoms also known to be caused by Mg deficits.

Mg supplementation has been shown to reduce hypercalciuria. Hypercalciuria is a finding in sponge kidney. Sponge kidney is associated with calcification of the kidney which is also linked to magnesium deficits. Sponge kidney is a feature of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.
People with EDS and osteogenesis imperfecta also often have many conditions associated with magnesium deficiency, such as keratoconus, hearing loss and MVP. Hypercalciuria is a common finding in osteogenesis imperfecta. Hypercalciuria has also been linked to vitamin K deficiency.

Researchers in Argentina found that patients with keratoconus were more likely to be deficient in magnesium than controls. (Interestingly, one of the researchers from this study also noticed the links between Mg deficits, keratoconus and Marfan and Down syndromes.)
Patients with keratoconus are about 8 times more likely to have MVP than controls. Patients with MVP are also usually magnesium deficient. Mg is the common link between the two conditions. Keratoconus, like MVP, is a feature found in many connective tissue disorders. Patients with keratoconus are 5 times more likely than controls to exhibit hyper mobility of selected joints. Hyper mobility is also closely linked to MVP, too. Like MVP, hyper mobility may also result from magnesium deficits. All three conditions are linked to connective tissue disorders. Keratoconus, MVP, hyper mobility and fibromyalgia are all also all linked to hyaluronic acid abnormalities. Hyaluronic acid synthesis is Mg dependent.

Menstrual Cramps
In a 1992 study, researchers at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Parma , found that Mg administration was a reliable therapy of primary dysmenorrhoea (menstrual cramps).In a 1990 study, researchers in Germany found that magnesium "had a therapeutic effect on both back pain and lower abdominal pain on the second and the third day of the cycle."In another study from Germany, 50 women suffering from primary dysmenorrhoea were treated with magnesium. After a six-month period, 21 out of 25 women showed a decline of symptoms.

This link has been moved to it's own page at: http://www.ctds.info/magnesium-migraine.html

Mitral valve prolapse
Many studies show that most people (60 - 85%, depending on the study) with MVP are low in Mg. Not surprisingly, magnesium supplementation has been shown to alleviate the symptoms of MVP. Heart valves with MVP show abnormalities of hyaluronic acid. People with many chronic disorders, especially the connective tissue disorders, commonly have MVP and studies show they always have hyaluronic acid abnormalities. Hyaluronic acid depends upon Mg for its synthesis. A review of the studies on Medline shows that hyaluronic acid is linked to MVP, MVP is linked to a wide variety of disorders, especially connective tissue disorders, and most connective tissue disorders are linked to anomalies of hyaluronic acid. If you put these events into a logical sequence, then you can come up with a theory that low Mg levels impacting hyaluronic acid, especially MVP, are a common link in many of the disorders in which MVP occurs. People with MVP have been found to have higher instances than normal of anxiety related disorders. This is thought to be because of higher adrenaline levels, as measured by increased catecholamine (a by-product of adrenaline) levels in their urine. Not surprisingly, elevated adrenaline levels and increased urinary catecholamines are also caused by low magnesium level.
People who have MVP are hyper mobile at a higher rate than controls. People who are hyper mobile have been found to be anxiety prone. In fact, people who have anxiety disorders are 16 times more likely to have joint laxity than controls. Hyper mobility is a feature of rickets, which can also be caused by a magnesium deficit.
MVP, anxiety disorders and hyper mobility all frequently occur together, whether they occur as isolated conditions, or as a part of many connective tissue disorders such as MVP syndrome, Marfan syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.
Some people with MVP have a characteristic body habituťs that includes pectus excavatum, hyper mobility, pectus carinatum, scoliosis, bowed limbs and other distinctive features. These conditions are called rachitic skeletal features, which can also be caused by a magnesium deficiency.
Many studies have noted associations between MVP and migraines, another disorder closely linked to Mg deficits.
People with MVP also have significantly higher rates of keratoconus, another disorder that has also been linked to low magnesium levels, hyaluronic acid abnormalities and hyper mobility.

Muscle Contractures and Cramps
Tight, painful muscles are a primary factor in fibromyalgia.
Magnesium is needed to release muscle contractions. Without Mg, tensed muscles stay in a contracted state. Mg supplementation is an established treatment for muscle cramps as well as an established treatment for fibromyalgia.
Mg requirements rise during pregnancy. Many women experience pregnancy induced leg cramps. These cramps have been shown to be alleviated by magnesium therapy.

Altered levels of magnesium and other biochemicalís have been found in patients with progressive myopia and other eye disorders.

Osteoporosis and Osteopenia
Mg deficiency has been linked to osteoporosis.
Mg deficiency induced in ratís results in reduced bone growth, osteopenia (an underlying feature of rickets) and an increase in bone fragility.
Mg supplementation has been shown to reduce bone turnover, a condition associated with osteoporosis. Women with osteoporosis have been found to be Mg deficient.
MVP is associated with scoliosis and pectus deformities, conditions that are known to occur in some cases as a result of Mg deficiencies.
Lowered bone densities, including osteoporosis, are a common finding Marfan syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. All of these disorders have many other features associated with Mg deficiencies.

Premature Birth
Maternal magnesium requirements rise during pregnancy. This would make it easier for mothers to develop a magnesium shortage during pregnancy, especially if they were low on magnesium before they became pregnant.
Magnesium sulphate is commonly administered to prevent preterm labour. Perhaps magnesium sulphate works to prevent preterm labour because a shortage of maternal Mg is what is causing the early labour in the first place. Standard medical treatments for preterm birth, asthma and migraines are all magnesium sulphate. Mg supplementation is a common treatment for MVP. These conditions often appear together in many chronic disorders. Mg is a common link.

Rachitic Skeletal Features
Rachitic skeletal features are features that are associated with rickets or ricket-like conditions. Rickets is a disorder that causes bones to soften due to a lack of calcification. It has multiple causes, but it is most often attributed to a lack of calcium or vitamin D. A lack of sunshine is a common cause of rickets, because our bodies make vitamin D when the sun shines on our skin. Mg is a needed co-factor for vitamin D utilization, meaning that a lack of Mg can cause vitamin D to be unavailable to the body.
The result is that a Mg deficit could, in turn, cause vitamin D deficiency symptoms. Magnesium supplementation is sometimes needed to treat rickets that have not been responsive to vitamin D or calcium treatment. A lack of Mg would provide a logical explanation of why MVP, pectus excavatum, scoliosis and other rachitic skeletal features commonly appear together.
Mg deficiency induced in beagles resulted in abnormal changes in their joint cartilage. The magnesium deficient beagles all had weakness in their legs, and one dog's legs hyper extended to a 90 degree angle. Hyper extended joints are a sign of several connective tissue disorders including Ehlers-Danlos and Marfan syndromes.
Pectus excavatum occurs in less than 1% of the population as a whole, but occurs in 20% of the patients with MVP or at more the 20 times the expected rate if there was no underlying linkage. Scoliosis has a strong connection to MVP as well, occurring in an estimated 2- 8% of the population as a whole, but in 55% of those with MVP. My theory is that these conditions appear frequently together because they have the same underlying biochemical causes, and at least one of these causes is an Mg deficiency.
Pectus excavatum and MVP frequently appear together, both in a wide variety of defined genetic syndromes, such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and Marfan syndrome, and as isolated features not linked to any genetic disorder.

Scar Formation
Increased levels of Mg, along with other nutrients, has been found to improve the formation of scars. Foetuses do not scar because of the high hyaluronic acid content of the amniotic fluid in the womb. Hyaluronic acid is Mg dependent.

A link between panic disorders, MVP and seizures has been noted. All three conditions are closely linked to Mg deficits. All of these conditions have also been linked to connective tissue and many other chronic disorders. Links have also been noted between migraines and epilepsy. Migraines are closely linked to Mg deficiencies.

In a study in Saudi Arabia, children with low serum Mg levels were found to have a high frequency of seizures.
Researchers in Belgium note that magnesium depletion can cause a marked irritability of the nervous system, eventually resulting in epileptic seizures.
Researchers in Australia observed that sheep fed low Mg diets developed epileptic convulsions.

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